TV and Movies

When you think of the word entertainment, what comes to mind? Most likely your favorite TV show or your new favorite movie. Today I am going to tell you about the evolution of television, and my thoughts about it.  It all started with photographs, then moving pictures were developed, then silent films, and finally; movies and animation.


First Moving Pictures:

The first ever moving picture was made by Eadweard Muybridge in 1880.  He was the first person to figure out how to make pictures move like real life.  He set up a whole row of cameras with trip wires, so that when the wires were tripped, the camera would take a picture.  He had a horse and rider run in front of the cameras, capturing a whole bunch of pictures of a running horse.  Then he played the film in one of his inventions; the zoöpraxiscope, giving the illusion of an actual moving horse (see the moving picture above). I found this interesting video on how the Zoopraxiscope works.


Developments and Innovations:

Over the next couple of years, innovators took the moving picture idea and ran with it.  George Eastman invented a type of film to replace the glass plates that had limited photographers so much, and eventually, innovators figured out how to make a camera that recorded motion onto a roll of film. This produced what they called silent films. Short movies without sound (most were less than 1/2 and hour long).  By 1928, sound was introduced, and now, since it was more enjoyable to watch, film makers started making full length movies. The well loved Mickey Mouse debuted in 1928 with it’s first episode called Steamboat Willie

In 1931 Merrie Melodies was created making the characters of Bugs Bunny, Yosemite Sam, Porky pig, Donald Duck, and many more nationwide favorites. The 1930’s and 40’s saw much improvement in the quality of movies.  In the mid 1930’s color was added, and over the next couple of decades, television would become the most popular form of entertainment out there.  In the 1960’s, people had figured out how to do computer animation in movies.  For a long time, it was only used for short periods in movies (such as a car flying down a hill at break-neck speed), but by the 1970-80’s when the animation was becoming better,  filmmakers were using it more and more in movies such as Star Wars and Star Trek.  In 1997, the first computer generated 3D movie (to be seen with 3D glasses) was debuted.


My Thoughts:

Today, we can watch people live on our TVs from across the globe, see videos from outer space, and watch how to do practically anything on YouTube.  While I enjoy watching a good movie, I also know that people waste a whole lot of time watching things instead of doing things.  Kids nowadays go watch their favorite show instead of going outside and playing a game with the neighbor kids a lot of the times. Another bad thing about movies is all the crap that they have in them now.  It’s hard to find a wholesome family movie that upholds good morals and ideals instead of making heroes out of the bad guys, promoting rebellion, and making immorality look good and “cool”.  I don’t want to make it sound like I’m all against movies and TV, and don’t get me wrong; there are thousands of amazing movies out there, it’s just that you have to use a lot of discernment and wisdom sifting through all the trash to find a movie that you would actually want yourself or your kids to watch.


Anyways, in conclusion to today’s essay, movies and TV are truly a great invention, and can be used to bring a good message to the world.   Here is a great movie if y’all need one to watch: Fireproof


Carnegie and Ford

My assignment today was to write an essay about the Industrial age in America. I already wrote an essay on the industrial revolution (here) which is the same thing, so I’m going to tell you a little bit about two of the leading businessmen of the day, as well as how they impacted the United States.

Andrew Carnegie

Carnegie (age 16) with his little brother

Andrew Carnegie was born in Scotland to a poor/middle-class family.  They immigrated America when he was a young teenager, where he soon got a job in a factory as a bobbin boy.  Carnegie was able to get out of the factories, and with the help and influence of his uncle, he got a job as a telegraph messenger. He was so fast at transmitting messages that a railroad businessman took notice of him and hired him as his secretary.  Even though Carnegie was his employee, the man took great interest in him and acted almost like a mentor to him.  Under this businessman’s recommendation, Carnegie saved his money and started investing it in stocks.  The young man had a good eye for deals, and he eventually became pretty well-to-do.  Carnegie then started the Keystone Bridge Co.  During the War (U.S. civil war) the need for iron and steel was growing by the day, so Carnegie and some other men started a steel rolling mill.  He went on to start his own steel company called Carnegie Steel Co. which made him one of the very richest men in America in those days.  Andrew Carnegie is also known for his great philanthropic additions to society.  A few of the notable things that he financed are: Carnegie Hall, Carnegie Endowment for National Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, and many more.



Henry Ford

Image result for Henry fordHenry Ford; we’ve all heard the name. The man that brought down the price of cars so much that they were now available for the common people, not just the wealthy. He was the inventor of the Model T, and the man who had the first assembly line system in his factories.

Henry Ford was good at tinkering with things and making them work. At the age of 15, he completely took apart a pocket watch and put it back together again, earning himself the reputation of expert watch repairman.  Ford’s first real job was as an apprentice machinist for a company called James F. Flower & Bros.  He got another job as a machinist at the Detroit Dry Dock Company before returning home to the family farm.  He learned how to repair and work on the Westinghouse steam engines, and got hired by Westinghouse to be the repairman.  Ford became an engineer in the Edison Lighting Co, where he worked himself up to the position of chief engineer.

Ford and his wife in the Quadricycle

About this time Ford started experimenting with gas engines and moving things with them. He called his first vehicle a Quadricycle.  Eventually Ford left Edison’s company and started the Detroit Automobile Company.  It turned out to be a failure.

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Model T

After another rocky start, the Ford Motor Co. came to life, introducing the Model T in October of 1908.


Ford had found a way to make cars cheap enough, sturdy enough, and wanted by the common people enough, to have a huge business.  He was the first man to implement the assembly line system into his factories.  The parts of the cars would come slowly down a moving belt, and each person had a specific little thing that they did to each part passing by them.  It was very monotonous work, but Ford made it worth his employees while, often paying them twice as much as other companies payed there employees.  During WWI,  Henry Ford started an airplane business, but it shut down due to the great depression.  Henry Ford died in April of 1947, leaving behind a massive car company, and a revolutionized automobile industry.



Clara Barton


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Today I am going to be writing about the famous U.S. Civil War nurse and founder of the American Red Cross; Clara Barton

Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born on Christmas Day of 1821. She was the baby of the family and she loved her four older siblings dearly. Ever since she was a young girl, Clara had an aptitude for nursing and doctoring. She nursed her brother David back to health after he fell from the rafters of a barn while he was building it. Nothing that anyone else did seemed to help, yet Clara, at age 10 stayed by him and nursed him after all of the doctors had given up. Eventually, David got better and was able to work again.

At the age of 17, she got her teacher’s certificate and took on a school. Her pupils loved her, and she loved what she was doing. Clara taught for 12 years. Eventually, she moved to Washington DC and started work in the US patent office. She was one of the very first women to hold a government job.

When the Civil War broke out, Clara started going to the train stations to help with the wounded soldiers that were being brought in the trains. She knew quite a few of them from among her students, and there were others that she had grown up with. Clara recognized the great need for supplies and nurses on the battlefield, so she started gathering supplies. She put ads in newspapers asking for supplies donations, got the ladies societies to give bandages, clothes, etc, and used her own home as a storehouse for all of it. After a lot of pushback, she was finally allowed to go out on the battlefield to put her nursing skills to use. To her, it didn’t matter what color the uniform was that the man she was nursing was wearing, or what side he belonged to. Even though she was on the Union side, she would help confederate and union soldiers alike. Sometimes when the soldiers were in delirium, they would think that this woman bending over and placing a cool rag on their forehead was their mother. They came to call her the “Angel of the Battlefield”, “American Nightingale”, and other endearing terms as those. This quote from Clara Barton shows something of her mentality and character.

I don’t know how long it has been since my ear has been free from the roll of a drum. It is the music I sleep by, and I love it…. I shall remain here while anyone remains, and do whatever comes to my hand. I may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while our soldiers can stand and fight, I can stand and feed and nurse them.

-Clara Barton

After the war, Clara went on a trip to Europe. While there, she helped in the Red Cross organization and met a few of the high up people in the program. Clara Barton loved what she saw, and eventually, after a lot of hard work, she convinced US President Chester Allan Arthur to fund a new branch of the organization in America. She became the first president of the American Red Cross.

Throughout the rest of her life, Clara Barton led her nurses and doctors to the scenes of many floods, battles, hurricanes, etc to help anyone who needed help. Barton died on April 12, 1912, leaving behind one of the most well-known and respected legacies of all time.


The Taming of the Shrew Summary

Today I am going to be writing a summary on William Shakespeare’s play, the taming of the Shrew.  I was assigned to read this play for English 7, and I actually didn’t think that it was that bad (I personally am not a big fan of plays).

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Shakespeare wrote three main types of plays; Comedies (like the taming of the shrew), Tragedies (like MacBeth or Romeo and Juliet), and Histories (such as Henry IV or Richard II).  Comedies are crafted to make people laugh. They often have extremely eccentric characters, and they seem to have goofy plots in general.


This story is based around a two main characters; Petruchio and Katherine (the Shrew).  Katherine’s father had two daughters, Katherine being the oldest. Her younger sister’s name was Bianca.  According to the customs of the times, Katherine had to be married before anyone could marry Bianca. Katherine was a distraught, violent, angry, wretch, so no one wanted to marry her.  This was a huge problem, for Bianca was known for her sweetness and beauty and she was very sought after by the men of the town where she lived.

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Two strangers came to town; Lucentio and Hortensio. Lucentio was supposed to go to college, while Hortensio was his attendant. Instead of going to college though, they came up with a plan for Lucentio to marry Bianca.   Here is how it worked: Hortensio asked to marry Bianca, switching characters with his master Lucentio.  The two men had heard that the father was looking for a tutor for his daughters, so Lucentio came acting as a tutor for Bianca.  It worked, and he got a job tutoring and secretly wooing her.  Pretty soon, they had both fallen deeply in love with each other.  At the same time, a rough, hard man from out of town came looking for a wife.  He decided that he wanted to marry Katherine. Not because he loved her, but for her dowry (her father was one of the richest man in town).  He also wanted to “tame” her and make her like a normal woman; docile and gentile, caring and sweet.  Everyone was so eager to get Katherine married that they really didn’t care who it was or what their character was like, so he practically forced her to marry him.

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Katherine (the Shrew)
After a troubled first night of matrimony (Katherine flew into a pond on the way home but Petruchio left her there and went home alone), Kate (that’s what Petruchio calls her) gets settled in, bringing the dirty old mansion to life.  One night, she decided to try and not argue with Petruchio (because it was useless) and to be honoring of the big fool even though that’s exactly what he was.  The next day, she was as sweet as ever a wife could be, obeying his every command.
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Pretty soon, Bianca and Lucentio decide that it’s time for them to get married. They were going to have to run away and get married, though, because part of the plan had been for Lucentio’s attendant Hortensio to  play the suitor while Lucentio  wooed Bianca.  Bianca’s father had engaged them to be married and the wedding was about to happen.   Hortensio had even tricked a man into pretending to be his father so that the dowry could be decided.  Plans started falling apart when Lucentio’s father showed up in town looking for him.  That made it difficult, because Hortensio switched characters with Lucentio, taking his name for the time being also.  Lucentio’s father recognized Hortensio as who he was instead of his son’s attendant.  Then Lucentio and Bianca came out and said that they were getting married.
It all ended up working out in the end.  Lucentio and Bianca had the wedding that was planned for her and Hortensio.  When Katherine and her husband showed up to the wedding, Kate was a reformed woman.  She was honoring of her fool of a husband, calm and smiling, and she even gave a speech to all the women at the wedding about how they should be honoring of their “lords”.  All’s well that ends well, right? Well, this story had a happy ending. Bianca finally could get married, and the Shrew was tamed.
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Lucentio and Bianca


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Petruchio and Kate




Rutherford Hayes

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Hayes and his wife Lucy

Rutherford Hayes was born on October 4, 1822. He grew up in Delaware, Ohio. Hayes was an excellent scholar as a boy and young man, graduating as valedictorian of his class at Kenyon College.  He moved on to study law at Harvard and once he graduated, Hayes started his own law practice near Fremont, Ohio.

Rutherford Hayes married a girl named Lucy Webb on December 30th, 1852. They had eight children.  A little while before he got married, Hayes moved to Cincinnati and entered into a partnership with a few other lawyers.

When the Civil War started, Rutherford Hayes joined the 23rd Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, where he was promoted to Major, then to lieutenant colonel, then to Brevet Brigadier General; commanding the first brigade of the Kanawha Division.  Hayes was elected to Congress in 1895 and later he was elected as the Governor of Ohio.  Rutherford Hayes ran for President of the United States in 1876 and won by a hairs breadth.  He became the 19th president of the US.  During his term in office, Hayes is remembered for pretty much ending the Reconstruction movement, and strengthening the executive branch of the government. In other words, he exercised more power than some previous presidents.

When Rutherford returned to normal life after his term, he served as the president for the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.  Rutherford Hayes’ wife died in 1889 and he died four years later from a heart attack.

President Andrew Johnson

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Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States of America and Abraham Lincolns Vice President.  When Lincoln was assassinated, Johnson was sworn in as the president.

Johnson was born in North Carolina on December 29, 1808, and grew up with a widowed mother, who apprenticed him to a tailor when he was 10, binding him to stay there until his 21st birthday.  At the age of 15, Johnson ran away from Selby (that was the tailor’s name) and at the age of 18, he married a girl named Eliza McCardle.  He also ran a successful tailor shop.  He made enough money at sewing, that he could afford to make real estate investments that eventually payed off well.

On January 4, 1834, Andrew Johnson was elected as Mayor of the town of Greeneville Tennessee.  From there, he joined the 90th regiment in the Tennessee Militia. He was promoted to Colonel.  In 1843, Johnson was elected to congress.  In 1853, he was elected the Governor of Tennessee.  Going on to become a senator, military governor of Tennessee, and eventually Abraham Lincoln’s vice president, Johnson worked his way up the ladder of politics.  In the wake of President Lincoln’s Death, Johnson was sworn in and he took up the responsibilities of president of the United States of America. Johnson was a democrat. The people of the US got something completely different from what they’d had for the last four years, because Lincoln had been a Republican.  the reason he had wanted Andrew Johnson for a vice president is because he was from the south, he was a democrat, and he thought that it would appeal more to the southerners to have someone in those criteria for vice president.  After Johnson finished his term, he returned to the senate.  Andrew Johnson died on July 31, 1875 at the age of 66.

Two Confederate Generals in the Civil War

Today I am going to be writing about two Confederate Civil War generals; Nathan Bedford Forrest and Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard (PGT Beauregard)

Nathan Bedford Forrest

Nathan B. Forrest - LOCc.jpgNathan Bedford Forrest was a Confederate commander during the civil war. He survived the war and afterwards went on to be one of the earliest members of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
Forrest was born on July 13, 1821 in Chapel Hill, Tennessee.   When he was 17 years old, his father and twin sister died from scarlet fever and he became the oldest man in the family.  Once he was grown up, Forrest became a wealthy plantation owner.  He made a fortune on real estate investments and slaves (he was a slave trader in addition to running a plantation and buying and selling land).  When the Civil War started in 1861, his first position was in Captain Josiah Whites Tennessee Mounted Rifles.  His 15 year old son William joined along side him.  Forrest was soon promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and from there he was told to go and recruit and train a group of mounted soldiers.  Then, he was put in charge of the 3rd Tennessee Cavalry.  Forrest was a natural at leading men in battle. He didn’t have any major military training, but he used common sense and was an outstanding leader and a good tactician.  He was an excellent swordsman and rider also.  He fought at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Murfreesburo, Chickamauga, Tupelo, Nashville, and many more.  Throughout the course of the war, Forrest was promoted many times.  By the end, he was Lieutenant General.  After the war, Bedford Forrest became a member of the Ku Klux Klan.  He died on October 29, 1877 in Memphis, Tennessee.


P.G.T. Beauregard

Related imageAlso called “Little Napoleon” and the “little Frenchman”, Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard was a Confederate General in the Civil war.  He was the commander in the first battle of the war; Fort Sumter.

Beauregard was born on May 28, 1818, at the Saint Bernard Parish in Louisiana.  He entered the West Point Military academy when he was a teenager, and graduated second in his class.  The things that he was best at during the academy were military engineering and artillery.

Beauregard fought in the Mexican-American war, so by the time the civil war broke out, he already had a bit of experience.  He fought at Fort Sumter (he was the general, actually), Bull Run, Shiloh, Charleston Harbor, Corinth, Petersburg, Fort Wagner, Bentonville, and at many other battles in the Civil War.  After the war, Beauregard became a railroad executive in Louisiana.  He died on February 20th, 1894, in New Orleans, Louisiana.