The Battle of Jumonville Glen

The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a 15-minute skirmish that started the wheels in motion for the 7 years war (also called the French and Indian war).

It all started on a cold winter night. A troop of English and Indian soldiers were marching toward a place called Fort Necessity.  The fort was in construction, and the soldiers were sent to keep it safe from the Canadians while it was being built. The English soldiers were commanded by a man named George Washington, (yes, the same man that let the continental army in the American Revolution) and the Indian soldiers were being led by a man named Tanacharison.

Washington and Tanacharison were about 5 miles apart when word came from the Indians that they had spotted the Canadian encampment.  (As a side note really quick, the band of 35 or so Canadians led by Joseph Jumonville, was just a small part of a larger group of soldiers. The larger group had already captured the partly constructed fort that Washington was on his way to defend.  Jumonville and his men were sent to warn Washington not to start messing around with the Canadian’s claimed land).  Washington marched his men the 5 miles that night to where Tanacharison was and set up an ambush.  The next morning, the Canadians were surprised by a bunch of soldiers attacking the camp.  The skirmish lasted only about 15 minutes, but quite a few of the Canadians were killed, including Joseph Jumonville.  Not including a couple of men that managed to escape, all of the Canadian survivors were taken as prisoners.  The dead were either just left in the field where the battle took place or  buried in very shallow graves.  George Washington pushed his men on to the fort.

When word came to the main party of Canadians, Jumonville’s brother was raving mad.  He took a troop of 600 soldiers, attacked Washington and his men and forced him to surrender.  The surrendering terms were written in french, which Washington couldn’t read, so it is questionable if he knew what he was agreeing to when he signed that paper. It turns out that the paper had a confession that he had had Jumonville specifically assassinated in the battle.   That was used against him later in life.

The next year, more and more small conflicts kept happening, and essentially grew into a full blown war.  In fact, both France and England declared war on each other in 1756.  This was the 7 years war, or the French and Indian war.

So, what is Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis (photo-sin-thu-sis) is a process that plants use to make themselves food, and make us oxygen. It is a complicated name for a complicated process, so I’ll try to break it down for you.  Basically, the sun hits the plant or tree, and the plant uses some of that energy to turn water and carbon dioxide into a thing that it can “eat” and grow with.  What’s left over is a bunch of oxygen! God was a great engineer when he made the earth, because with all of the plants in the world converting yucky carbon-dioxide (what comes our of our mouth when we breath out) into wonderful, pure, oxygen, we never run out of air to breath!

 

Cinder Cone and Shield Volcanoes

Today I’m going to be telling you about two different types of volcanoes. There are four major kinds; Cinder Cone, Composite, Shield, and Lava Dome, but today I am just going to be telling you about  Cinder cones and Shields. First we will look at Cinder Cones.

Cinder cone volcanoes kind of look like a big pile of sand with a huge hole dug in the middle.  But really, they spew out chunks of lava that break apart and form a ton of cinders.  It kind of gradually builds the volcano up. Here is a picture of a Cinder Cone Volcano.

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Cinder Cone Volcano

Shield volcanoes have lava that is very liquidy, so it flows faster.  Also, there isn’t very much ash and rock in  a shield volcano.  In general, they don’t get super duper tall (the tallest is only 14,177′ above sea level).  Despite not being the tallest volcanoes out there, shield volcanoes are super, super wide (some as much 60 miles wide).

 

A Shield Volcano

 

States of Matter

Today I am going to be telling you about the four states of matter; solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.  Solids are hard things like rocks, ice, etc, while liquids are runny substances that you can pour, like water and lava!  Gas is kind of hard to explain, but Wikipedia says that it is “an air-like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its quantity”.  Plasma is a whole different story.  Lightning is made out of plasma and so is the sun!  Here are some examples of matter.

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Solid
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Gas
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Plasma
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Liquid

In Which the Sheriff of Nottingham Becomes an Outlaw

The Sheriff of Nottingham was at his wits end.   That merry knave, Robin Hood, had not been brought to justice.  Prince John (who had declared himself king in King Richard’s absence) was getting more and more eager to get Robin Hood out of his way too.  You see, Robin and his merry men set the people of England against the false king.  Prince John, of course, did not like this. One day, he called the Sheriff to come to London-town to have a meeting with him.  The sheriff eagerly prepared to leave immediately, which he did.  It was a sight to see.  The cowardly sheriff, knowing that he would have to go through Sherwood Forest to get to London-Town brought all of the retainers in Nottingham. They all amounted to about 80-armed men all decked out in their best attire. As for Robin Hood, two of his men had been in Nottingham when the word came that Prince John summoned the Sheriff, and he was to be traveling to London-Town with all the armed men in Nottingham.  They straightway returned to Sherwood and brought the news to Robin.

As soon as Robin heard what was to take place, he brought his horn to his lips and blew three loud, clear, sweet notes.  At this, his men all gathered ’round him, some coming out of the forest, some from different paths leading into the clearing.  He stood up and began giving instructions. “Six men will come with me, to meet that knave of a sheriff, and the rest of you will cut off his retainers and wagons.  Will Scarlet, Little John, Friar Tuck, Allan A Dale, David of Doncaster, and Midge the Miller’s son will come with me, and Will Stutely, you will lead the rest.”  Ten men were also set out in the forest to keep an eye on the roads to see when the Sheriff arrived.

All this was done, so Robin’s men waited.  The next morning, bright and early, Will Stutely and Robin Hood were woken, and told that the men stationed in the forest had caught sight of the sheriff and his procession.  Robin blew his horn, and all the men were up in a heartbeat, gathering around him.  He reminded them of their orders and they all went off to do them.  Robin and his six men ran and hid in the bushes on the side of the road.  Will Stutley and his men (there was about 75 of them) did the same, hiding along in the bushes every few yards for half of a mile or so. When the Sheriff’s caravan got to where Will and his men were, all of the men stuck their quarterstaffs out in the horse’s way, and tripped them.  Then all of the men rushed out into the road and pulled the Sheriff’s retainers off their horses.  This would not normally have worked, but all of the retainers were paying attention to the Sheriff, who was riding in front. Robin had stepped out, and grabbed the bridle of the sheriff’s horse. It was a sight to see. More than 80 men all being pulled off their horses, and their swords being grabbed and thrown into the bushes.  Robin Hood and his six men grabbed the bridles of the Sheriff’s horse, and started leading them into Sherwood.  The Sheriff started yelling at his retainers telling them to come and capture Robin Hood. When he looked backwards, where they were supposed to be, he saw a scene of utter chaos. Seventy men in Lincoln green were pulling his retainers off their horses while they were kicking and trying to get to their swords.

Soon, Robin’s men had gotten control and disarmed all of the sheriff’s retainers.  Robin yelled for them to stay there, and he led the Sheriff and a few of his men into the forest, and into him and his men’s camp.  Then he said, “My dear sheriff, I have a deal to make with you. You pick two of your best Yeomen, and my man Little John and I will have a little competition with them. Whoever can split a twig the width of my thumb from 70 paces away with a grey goose shaft, I will give a good stout ewe bow, with gold engraving, and 12 good arrows to match.”  The Sheriff decided that he would make another part of the deal too. “If you and your little john beat my men, then I will come and join your band of merry men, with all of these retainers with me. But, if I win, you will become my page, for life.” Robin thought for a while, and then decided that it would be worth it. “My answer is yes, sheriff!”  The targets were set up, and the sheriff picked his men.  The first was the popular young Sir Eldred of the Moor, and the second was old Sir Alfred of Yorkton. They were both very well-known archers in England.  It was decided that Sir Eldred would go first, then Little John, then Sir Alfred, and then finally, Robin Hood.  Each man would have two shots at the two targets, and whichever team split the stick, would be the winner.

Up Sir Eldred stepped, brought up his bow, fitted one of his arrows, and aimed. Wizzz, the arrow shot from the bow, and flew toward the stick. The young man’s arrow missed the mark by a barley straw’s width. He fitted his second arrow, and this time, the arrow nicked the stick. It was not split though, so Little John took his turn.  Both of Little John’s arrows hit the stick, and stuck in it, but neither went all the way through, to split it.  Sir Alfred was up next.  The Sheriff was sitting on the edge of his seat, as was Robin, because both of their futures were at stake. Now, Sir Alfred stepped up with is bow.  He aimed his first arrow, and let fly. This one would have went straight through the stick, but a little gust of wind caught it and blew it off of course, and it landed on the ground a ways away. The second arrow, however, hit the stick straight in the middle and went all the way. It didn’t split the stick all the way though!  Robin Hood let out a sigh of relief, and stepped up to the mark. He let his first arrow go, and it flew straight and true, straight to the stick. The same thing happened with his arrow though. It went all the way through, but didn’t split the stick all the way. He drew a deep breath, and aimed his second arrow.  It flew whizzing toward the stick. Pffttts! It went straight through, and split the stick all the way!  A great shout came out of the throats of all of Robin Hood’s merry men. The sheriff of Nottingham couldn’t believe it. He was absolutely sure that his men could shoot better than Robin Hood and Little John. He was now Robin’s man, along with all of the retainers that he had brought with him.  Since he wasn’t a sheriff anymore, he took the name of Richard of Nottingham instead. He actually learned to like the life of Robin and his band, carefree, and adventurous.  Robin even helped teach him not to be so cowardly.

Thus concludes my tale of how the Sheriff of Nottingham became an outlaw.

 

3 Forms of Literature

Lately I have been learning about all the different types of literature, and so today I’m going to be telling you about 3 of them. The first one that I am writing about will be Novels, the second, short stories, and then the third and final will be Novellas.

 

#1. Novels

Novels are one of the most popular form of literature around. The definition is “a long prose narrative that describes fictional characters and events usually in the form of a sequential story”.  (If you don’t know what prose means, it is a “written or spoken language in its ordinary form without metrical structure”).  So, in other words, a novel is a book that is written in normal, every-day, language.  Some famous novels are Huck Finn, by Mark Twain, To Kill a Mocking Bird by Harper Lee, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, and The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgeson Burnett.

 

#2. Short Stories

Short stories are also written in Prose, “making use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, but far lesser than a novel”.  Short stories are not a certain word length, yet they are not super long.  Definitely shorter than a Novel, but longer than an Anecdote.  Some popular short stories are Gift of the Magi, by O. Henry, Rip Van Winkle, by Washington Irving, and The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, by Mark Twain.

 

#3 Novellas

A novella is kind of like the bridge between a novel and a short story. It has fewer conflicts than a novel, but more complicated ones than a short story.  Some examples of Novellas are A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, The Old man and the Sea, by Ernest Hemingway, and War of the Worlds, by H.G. Wells.

George Whitefield

George Whitefield (pronounced Whit-field, not White-field) was a influential traveling preacher during the period of the Great Awakening in the 13 Colonies. He was actually born in England, but found his calling in the new world. He actually helped get them going with breaking away from England too.

George Whitefield was born in 1714, in the town of Gloucester England.  His parents owned a inn, but business wasn’t very good, and they were rather poor.  Whitefield entered Oxford as a servitor to pay his way through (a servitor is someone who works for the higher class students cleaning rooms, carrying books, etc).  During his time in college, Whitefield met the Wesley brothers (Charles and John) and joined a club with them called “the Holy Club”, where he was introduced to theology and such things.  Although Whitefield was learning all about christian theology and God, he didn’t really have an actual relationship with God.

God revealed himself to George, and he became very passionate about serving and following in God’s path.  He started preaching and his reputation just grew and grew. It is said that he could preach so loud that you could hear him from five miles away!   Whitefield visited America and saw the need for an Orphanage and some good old preaching.  He returned to England, rose funds, and then went back to the colonies.  A orphanage was built and he called it “Bethesda”.  When Whitefield wasn’t at the orphanage, he was traveling around preaching at revival.

George Whitefield kept on with his calling until his death in September of 1770, at age 55.  He was one of the most influential preachers of the time, and is remembered as one of the leaders of the Great Awakening.