The Anglo-Spanish War

Odessa O.
Teacher: Bradley Fish Jr.
Subject: History

This war is what gave England it’s great naval supremacy.  Spain was determined to take the English throne and return the country to Catholicism, while England was equally determined to keep the throne and also keep the freedom of religion that Elizabeth I had brought when she ascended the throne in 1558.  Philip II of Spain built a fleet of 130 huge ships especially to attack England. It was called the Armada, which in Spanish, means Navy.

Mary Tudor had died, and her half-sister Elizabeth had been crowned queen. But, Mary had married Philip II, the king of Spain.  So, when Mary died in 1558, and Elizabeth became queen, he believed that he should get some of the English throne, or at least Elizabeth’s hand in marriage.  She refused to marry him (in fact, she never got married at all).  So, Philip decided to try to overthrow Elizabeth and take England for himself.

Philip started building a fleet of 130 ships that were huge. Those 130 were so huge that they held 26,000 men.  Elizabeth knew that if the Armada landed in England, they were as good as dead, so under Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Frances Drake, the English navy met the massive Spanish Armada in the English channel.

The Battle went poorly for the Spaniards. The weather was against them, the English had small ships that could run circles around their huge ones, plus the English Channel wasn’t super wide, so it was a lot easier for the English navy to maneuver and get around.  To top it off, the English sent a few fire-ships over that lit a bunch of Spain’s fleet on fire.  The Armada was so crippled that it returned to Spain without even landing on English Ground.

The Anglo-Spanish war didn’t officially end until 1604 when King James (who became king after Elizabeth I died) instituted the treaty of London that ended the war.


Lifesaving: Contact Rescues- Unconcious Victim

5 things you need to think about when someone is drowning, and you need to rescue them:

1. Planning and assessment

  • Be quick
  • Are there things that you can use to help the victim get to the shore  (rescue aids) such as a floaty.
  • Are their things in the water that could be hazardous
  • Make sure and put a life jacket on if there is one available

2. Entry and Approach

  • If there is a sandy beach, you can just run into the water, but if it’s a steep slope, o if the water’s murky, just ease into the water
  •  keep eye contact with the  drowning person, and talk to them

3.  Assists

  •  Armpit tow- from behind victim
  • Wrist tow- from the front side
  • Cross Chest tow- for rough water

4. Landing

  • If it’s a sandy slope, you can gently drag the victim out of the water, but if it’s a vertical drop (like in a swimming pool) you might need another person to help you pull the victim up, and  get them out of the water

5. Aftercare

  • Have someone call 911, so that a medical expert can check out the victim that you just dragged out of the water, Even if they look like they’ll be fine, make sure that they get checked out anyway.
  • After so much adrenaline pumping through your body, you need to sit down and let yourself calm down and get back to normal again


3 White-Water Safety tips

  1. Wear a life jacket and helmet at all times, and don’t wear super heavy clothes and shoes.

This is just the common-sense thing to do. If you’re going through rapids, and it’s potentially possible that you’ll capsize, you want your head to be protected, and still float.  If you wear really heavy clothes and shoes, then once they get wet, they’re going to drag you down.

    2.  Don’t go alone

If you capsize and can’t get out of the river by yourself, then it is critical to have a partner that can help you get out. Even the most expert kayakers and rafters capsize sometimes.

  3.  Don’t be stupid

There are a lot of bad and dangerous situations that you can avoid by being smart, and not trying to show off, or impress people by doing things that would be really cool if you do it right, but dangerous if you don’t. Also, If you do capsize, don’t panic. Keep your head on straight, and conserve your energy for when you need it.


Chart: Rates of Drowning in Natural Water Settings (Including Boating) by Gender - 1999-2007
This graph is really interesting.  It’s crazy how many more guys drown than girls!