The Battle of Jumonville Glen

The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a 15-minute skirmish that started the wheels in motion for the 7 years war (also called the French and Indian war).

It all started on a cold winter night. A troop of English and Indian soldiers were marching toward a place called Fort Necessity.  The fort was in construction, and the soldiers were sent to keep it safe from the Canadians while it was being built. The English soldiers were commanded by a man named George Washington, (yes, the same man that let the continental army in the American Revolution) and the Indian soldiers were being led by a man named Tanacharison.

Washington and Tanacharison were about 5 miles apart when word came from the Indians that they had spotted the Canadian encampment.  (As a side note really quick, the band of 35 or so Canadians led by Joseph Jumonville, was just a small part of a larger group of soldiers. The larger group had already captured the partly constructed fort that Washington was on his way to defend.  Jumonville and his men were sent to warn Washington not to start messing around with the Canadian’s claimed land).  Washington marched his men the 5 miles that night to where Tanacharison was and set up an ambush.  The next morning, the Canadians were surprised by a bunch of soldiers attacking the camp.  The skirmish lasted only about 15 minutes, but quite a few of the Canadians were killed, including Joseph Jumonville.  Not including a couple of men that managed to escape, all of the Canadian survivors were taken as prisoners.  The dead were either just left in the field where the battle took place or  buried in very shallow graves.  George Washington pushed his men on to the fort.

When word came to the main party of Canadians, Jumonville’s brother was raving mad.  He took a troop of 600 soldiers, attacked Washington and his men and forced him to surrender.  The surrendering terms were written in french, which Washington couldn’t read, so it is questionable if he knew what he was agreeing to when he signed that paper. It turns out that the paper had a confession that he had had Jumonville specifically assassinated in the battle.   That was used against him later in life.

The next year, more and more small conflicts kept happening, and essentially grew into a full blown war.  In fact, both France and England declared war on each other in 1756.  This was the 7 years war, or the French and Indian war.

In Which the Sheriff of Nottingham Becomes an Outlaw

The Sheriff of Nottingham was at his wits end.   That merry knave, Robin Hood, had not been brought to justice.  Prince John (who had declared himself king in King Richard’s absence) was getting more and more eager to get Robin Hood out of his way too.  You see, Robin and his merry men set the people of England against the false king.  Prince John, of course, did not like this. One day, he called the Sheriff to come to London-town to have a meeting with him.  The sheriff eagerly prepared to leave immediately, which he did.  It was a sight to see.  The cowardly sheriff, knowing that he would have to go through Sherwood Forest to get to London-Town brought all of the retainers in Nottingham. They all amounted to about 80-armed men all decked out in their best attire. As for Robin Hood, two of his men had been in Nottingham when the word came that Prince John summoned the Sheriff, and he was to be traveling to London-Town with all the armed men in Nottingham.  They straightway returned to Sherwood and brought the news to Robin.

As soon as Robin heard what was to take place, he brought his horn to his lips and blew three loud, clear, sweet notes.  At this, his men all gathered ’round him, some coming out of the forest, some from different paths leading into the clearing.  He stood up and began giving instructions. “Six men will come with me, to meet that knave of a sheriff, and the rest of you will cut off his retainers and wagons.  Will Scarlet, Little John, Friar Tuck, Allan A Dale, David of Doncaster, and Midge the Miller’s son will come with me, and Will Stutely, you will lead the rest.”  Ten men were also set out in the forest to keep an eye on the roads to see when the Sheriff arrived.

All this was done, so Robin’s men waited.  The next morning, bright and early, Will Stutely and Robin Hood were woken, and told that the men stationed in the forest had caught sight of the sheriff and his procession.  Robin blew his horn, and all the men were up in a heartbeat, gathering around him.  He reminded them of their orders and they all went off to do them.  Robin and his six men ran and hid in the bushes on the side of the road.  Will Stutley and his men (there was about 75 of them) did the same, hiding along in the bushes every few yards for half of a mile or so. When the Sheriff’s caravan got to where Will and his men were, all of the men stuck their quarterstaffs out in the horse’s way, and tripped them.  Then all of the men rushed out into the road and pulled the Sheriff’s retainers off their horses.  This would not normally have worked, but all of the retainers were paying attention to the Sheriff, who was riding in front. Robin had stepped out, and grabbed the bridle of the sheriff’s horse. It was a sight to see. More than 80 men all being pulled off their horses, and their swords being grabbed and thrown into the bushes.  Robin Hood and his six men grabbed the bridles of the Sheriff’s horse, and started leading them into Sherwood.  The Sheriff started yelling at his retainers telling them to come and capture Robin Hood. When he looked backwards, where they were supposed to be, he saw a scene of utter chaos. Seventy men in Lincoln green were pulling his retainers off their horses while they were kicking and trying to get to their swords.

Soon, Robin’s men had gotten control and disarmed all of the sheriff’s retainers.  Robin yelled for them to stay there, and he led the Sheriff and a few of his men into the forest, and into him and his men’s camp.  Then he said, “My dear sheriff, I have a deal to make with you. You pick two of your best Yeomen, and my man Little John and I will have a little competition with them. Whoever can split a twig the width of my thumb from 70 paces away with a grey goose shaft, I will give a good stout ewe bow, with gold engraving, and 12 good arrows to match.”  The Sheriff decided that he would make another part of the deal too. “If you and your little john beat my men, then I will come and join your band of merry men, with all of these retainers with me. But, if I win, you will become my page, for life.” Robin thought for a while, and then decided that it would be worth it. “My answer is yes, sheriff!”  The targets were set up, and the sheriff picked his men.  The first was the popular young Sir Eldred of the Moor, and the second was old Sir Alfred of Yorkton. They were both very well-known archers in England.  It was decided that Sir Eldred would go first, then Little John, then Sir Alfred, and then finally, Robin Hood.  Each man would have two shots at the two targets, and whichever team split the stick, would be the winner.

Up Sir Eldred stepped, brought up his bow, fitted one of his arrows, and aimed. Wizzz, the arrow shot from the bow, and flew toward the stick. The young man’s arrow missed the mark by a barley straw’s width. He fitted his second arrow, and this time, the arrow nicked the stick. It was not split though, so Little John took his turn.  Both of Little John’s arrows hit the stick, and stuck in it, but neither went all the way through, to split it.  Sir Alfred was up next.  The Sheriff was sitting on the edge of his seat, as was Robin, because both of their futures were at stake. Now, Sir Alfred stepped up with is bow.  He aimed his first arrow, and let fly. This one would have went straight through the stick, but a little gust of wind caught it and blew it off of course, and it landed on the ground a ways away. The second arrow, however, hit the stick straight in the middle and went all the way. It didn’t split the stick all the way though!  Robin Hood let out a sigh of relief, and stepped up to the mark. He let his first arrow go, and it flew straight and true, straight to the stick. The same thing happened with his arrow though. It went all the way through, but didn’t split the stick all the way. He drew a deep breath, and aimed his second arrow.  It flew whizzing toward the stick. Pffttts! It went straight through, and split the stick all the way!  A great shout came out of the throats of all of Robin Hood’s merry men. The sheriff of Nottingham couldn’t believe it. He was absolutely sure that his men could shoot better than Robin Hood and Little John. He was now Robin’s man, along with all of the retainers that he had brought with him.  Since he wasn’t a sheriff anymore, he took the name of Richard of Nottingham instead. He actually learned to like the life of Robin and his band, carefree, and adventurous.  Robin even helped teach him not to be so cowardly.

Thus concludes my tale of how the Sheriff of Nottingham became an outlaw.

 

Saxon Culture

3/23/2017
Teacher: Bradley Fish Jr.

In my 7th grade English class, I have been reading a book called Wulf the Saxon, by G.A. Henty. It’s all about the Norman invasion of England. This week for my writing assignment, I need to write about the culture of the Anglo-Saxon people.

The Anglo-Saxon people started out as a bunch of Germanic tribes that settled in the part of Europe that is now England.  The tribes eventually united and grew into a country with a King, and different Earldoms and Earls ruling over them.  In each earldom, there were the people that lived in them that were free men that were farmers, or some other occupation such as a metal worker or something like that.

There were not a lot of trained, paid soldiers, so when a  war started, all the farmers and people were called from their homes, farms, and businesses to fight. This made them weaker than their opponents because their men would leave to get back to their farms and occupations as soon as their required time in service was up.  This left the king relatively helpless at times because he had practically no army.

The Saxons were pagan, believing in what seems like thousands of different gods, but eventually, some catholic missionaries came and converted most of England.  King Alfred helped spread the popularity of Catholicism also.  The Saxons had cities and villages and monasteries and convents and everything.

Over time, England began to adopt more and more civilized ideas and things, to become one of the most powerful country’s in Europe.

 

 

The Anglo-Spanish War

Odessa O.
Teacher: Bradley Fish Jr.
Subject: History

This war is what gave England it’s great naval supremacy.  Spain was determined to take the English throne and return the country to Catholicism, while England was equally determined to keep the throne and also keep the freedom of religion that Elizabeth I had brought when she ascended the throne in 1558.  Philip II of Spain built a fleet of 130 huge ships especially to attack England. It was called the Armada, which in Spanish, means Navy.

Mary Tudor had died, and her half-sister Elizabeth had been crowned queen. But, Mary had married Philip II, the king of Spain.  So, when Mary died in 1558, and Elizabeth became queen, he believed that he should get some of the English throne, or at least Elizabeth’s hand in marriage.  She refused to marry him (in fact, she never got married at all).  So, Philip decided to try to overthrow Elizabeth and take England for himself.

Philip started building a fleet of 130 ships that were huge. Those 130 were so huge that they held 26,000 men.  Elizabeth knew that if the Armada landed in England, they were as good as dead, so under Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Frances Drake, the English navy met the massive Spanish Armada in the English channel.

The Battle went poorly for the Spaniards. The weather was against them, the English had small ships that could run circles around their huge ones, plus the English Channel wasn’t super wide, so it was a lot easier for the English navy to maneuver and get around.  To top it off, the English sent a few fire-ships over that lit a bunch of Spain’s fleet on fire.  The Armada was so crippled that it returned to Spain without even landing on English Ground.

The Anglo-Spanish war didn’t officially end until 1604 when King James (who became king after Elizabeth I died) instituted the treaty of London that ended the war.

John Cabot

John Cabot was an Italian explorer, who explored for  England.  He headed up two explorations. The first voyage turned out well. Cabot and his crew landed on Newfoundland. The second voyage, though, ended in disaster.

Cabot was born in 1450, in Venice.  His father was a spice merchant.  When he was a boy, he would go to the docks and talk to the Italian sailors.  He learned a lot about navigation and sailing from them.  Cabot got married when he was twenty-four years old and had three sons.

John Cabot moved to England in 1488, because of financial troubles. There were rumors going around that he was being chased by the people he owed money to, so he figured he should just leave the country.  He decided that he wanted to go exploring.  His timing was just right. England was seeing a lot of the countries around them going into other countries and establishing colonies. They wanted to get in on the game now. So, King Henry IV commissioned him to go to the new world, and claim some of it for England.

In 1497, Cabot left the port with 18 men, and one ship called The Matthew.  Fifty days later, they landed on what is now Newfoundland. Like other explorers before him, Cabot thought that he was in Asia. He returned to England, and then he was sent on another exploration.  This time, he left the port with 300 men and five ships. This second exploration ended quite strangely.  The whole 300 man crew and all five ships mysteriously disappeared.

Nobody knows what happened to John Cabot and his second exploration, but he is credited with being the first European man to set foot on the mainland of North America since Leif Erickson and the Vikings.