The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a 15-minute skirmish that started the wheels in motion for the 7 years war (also called the French and Indian war).
It all started on a cold winter night. A troop of English and Indian soldiers were marching toward a place called Fort Necessity. The fort was in construction, and the soldiers were sent to keep it safe from the Canadians while it was being built. The English soldiers were commanded by a man named George Washington, (yes, the same man that let the continental army in the American Revolution) and the Indian soldiers were being led by a man named Tanacharison.
Washington and Tanacharison were about 5 miles apart when word came from the Indians that they had spotted the Canadian encampment. (As a side note really quick, the band of 35 or so Canadians led by Joseph Jumonville, was just a small part of a larger group of soldiers. The larger group had already captured the partly constructed fort that Washington was on his way to defend. Jumonville and his men were sent to warn Washington not to start messing around with the Canadian’s claimed land). Washington marched his men the 5 miles that night to where Tanacharison was and set up an ambush. The next morning, the Canadians were surprised by a bunch of soldiers attacking the camp. The skirmish lasted only about 15 minutes, but quite a few of the Canadians were killed, including Joseph Jumonville. Not including a couple of men that managed to escape, all of the Canadian survivors were taken as prisoners. The dead were either just left in the field where the battle took place or buried in very shallow graves. George Washington pushed his men on to the fort.
When word came to the main party of Canadians, Jumonville’s brother was raving mad. He took a troop of 600 soldiers, attacked Washington and his men and forced him to surrender. The surrendering terms were written in french, which Washington couldn’t read, so it is questionable if he knew what he was agreeing to when he signed that paper. It turns out that the paper had a confession that he had had Jumonville specifically assassinated in the battle. That was used against him later in life.
The next year, more and more small conflicts kept happening, and essentially grew into a full blown war. In fact, both France and England declared war on each other in 1756. This was the 7 years war, or the French and Indian war.
George Whitefield (pronounced Whit-field, not White-field) was a influential traveling preacher during the period of the Great Awakening in the 13 Colonies. He was actually born in England, but found his calling in the new world. He actually helped get them going with breaking away from England too.
George Whitefield was born in 1714, in the town of Gloucester England. His parents owned a inn, but business wasn’t very good, and they were rather poor. Whitefield entered Oxford as a servitor to pay his way through (a servitor is someone who works for the higher class students cleaning rooms, carrying books, etc). During his time in college, Whitefield met the Wesley brothers (Charles and John) and joined a club with them called “the Holy Club”, where he was introduced to theology and such things. Although Whitefield was learning all about christian theology and God, he didn’t really have an actual relationship with God.
God revealed himself to George, and he became very passionate about serving and following in God’s path. He started preaching and his reputation just grew and grew. It is said that he could preach so loud that you could hear him from five miles away! Whitefield visited America and saw the need for an Orphanage and some good old preaching. He returned to England, rose funds, and then went back to the colonies. A orphanage was built and he called it “Bethesda”. When Whitefield wasn’t at the orphanage, he was traveling around preaching at revival.
George Whitefield kept on with his calling until his death in September of 1770, at age 55. He was one of the most influential preachers of the time, and is remembered as one of the leaders of the Great Awakening.
Today I’m going to give you a very brief summary of four of the original 13 Colonies. Hopefully I can get them in order.
Virginia was started in 1607 by the Virginia Company. Sir Walter named it after the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth the 1st of England. Jamestown was the first settlement. The life for the colonists in Virginia was a hard one. The colony almost failed many times, but always found a way to survive.
The Massachusett Bay Colony was started in 1620 by the colonists from the Mayflower. The story of the mayflower and the puritans is pretty famous, so I won’t tell you all about it. The first settlement was Plymouth. Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691.
#3. New Hampshire
New Hampshire was started in 1921. John Wheelwright, and his sister-in-law, Anne Hutchinson started a settlement called Exeter in New Hampshire. The two of them were banished from Boston, so they took some other people with them and started Exeter.
The first settlers landed in Maryland in 1633. King Charles I gave the charter to Lord Baltimore. Leonard Calvert, who was Lord Baltimore’s son was the one that led the colonists into the land and settle it.