The Home-Front War (WWII)

Ever heard of it?  It actually wasn’t a real war, it was just the war effort back home to make it through World War II and supply the soldiers over-seas with necessary items for survival. There is a home-front war during every war, but today I’m only going to talk about the one during WWII.

Factories:
Image result for wwii factories
During WWII, or any war, more firearms, ammunition, airplanes, etc. have to be made. That means that more people had to be employed to make that happen.  During WWI, women started working in the factories. When WWII came around, all of the new jobs in factories and businesses pulled the U.S. out of the great depression and dramatically helped the economy.

Victory Gardens and Rations:

Related imageAnother part of the home-front war was the idea of going with out something so that the https://i1.wp.com/www.sarahsundin.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/114-1.jpgsoldiers over-seas could have it. Something called “Victory Gardens” came from this idea.  Certain things like sugar, coffee, and flour were rationed out. That meant you were only allowed to buy a certain amount of each item so that there was enough to send over-seas to the soldiers. Victory Gardens helped the people have enough food to eat without having to take as much of the rationed foods.

Join the WAC now!Women in the War:
In the time of WWII, most women didn’t join the war to be soldiers, but many did for non-combatant jobs such as nurses, clerks, etc.  Some women joined the U.S. Armed Forces and served in special women’s divisions. (Read more here ) Women were also needed for every day jobs such as teaching, cleaning, raising their family, and working in stores.

Men in the WarRelated image
Men served in the war in many different ways.  You could join the Navy, Army, Marines, Air Force, or Coast Guard if you wanted to go into a combatant position.  There were lots of jobs back home that helped too.  Men worked in factories making munitions (ammo, guns, military equipment, etc), but they also did normal jobs like fixing cars and working at the local butcher shop.

 

Here is a song that was very popular during WWII:

 

During a war, there are many jobs that are un-glamorous, but they need done.  Nobody wanted to stand in a line and put bombs and guns together all day, but we couldn’t have fought the enemy without the people that did it.  Everyone was needed, and everyone pitched in to help the war effort.

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The Roaring 20s

The 1920s were a time in America’s history where society started modernizing very quickly.  Gals started wearing short skirts, bobbed hair, and some started smoking and drinking.  The prohibition act made it illegal to buy or sell alcohol in the U.S, so bootleggers sprung up all over the place to make a way around the act. The American people transitioned into the consumer mentality instead of being self-sufficient. Women could now vote and more people were living in cities rather than the country for the first time in American history.  Today I am going to be talking about the culture of the 1920s.   Related image

Fashion:
In the 1920s, the gals started wearing shorterRelated image dresses.  They liked having their hair “bobbed”  Women who wore the new style of clothes were called “Flappers”.  Men wore suits a lot, but not all the time.  The two pictures are of casual outfits worn by young adults in the 1920s.

Dance and Music:
Related imageThe dancing in the 1920s got wild.  The women wore extremely short dresses that flipped up a lot while they were dancing.  The main styles were Lindy Hop, Jitterbug, Waltz, and the Tango.  The music went right along with the dancing.  The faster the music was, the faster the dancing was.  The 1920s were known as the “Jazz age” in the music industry.  George Gershwin  and Duke Ellington were two very famous musicians from the 20’s.  Here is a song by the Andrews Sisters called “Don’t sit under the Apple Tree”

Entertainment:
By the end of the 1920s, sound had been introduced to films, and they had become extremely popular.  Theaters were popping up and people would go see “movies” all the time.  The popularity of sports also exploded. Babe Ruth was a great baseball player of the 1920s.

Prohibition:
The prohibition act was a law that was passed in 1920 that outlawed the act of buying, selling, making, transporting, importing or exporting alcohol for drinking. This is what the 18th amendment says:

“After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.”

Image result for prohibition actPeople were very upset by this.  They reasoned (rightly) that it isn’t the government’s job to keep a certain beverage out of people’s homes.  Though this amendment didn’t outlaw the possession of alcohol, many of the towns made extra rules that did.  Criminals known as “bootleggers” would smuggle alcohol to people by sticking the bottles into their tall boots.  There were illegal bars and clubs called “speakeasys” all over the place. The whole idea of controlling whether or not people drink alcohol was a mess.  The government was over-using it’s power, and so eventually, in 1933, the 21st amendment was ratified, repealing the 18th amendment and making alcohol legal again.

 

In conclusion, the “Roaring 20s” was a time of newness. There were a lot of new things going on.  New fashions, new music, new dancing, new political ideas, new inventions.  Some of them were good and some were bad, but overall, over the course of those 10 years, morals decayed very noticeably.

 

 

 

 

 

Term Paper

Odessa Owens                                                                                                                   4-17-2018
English 7
Teacher: Bradley Fish Jr.

Introduction:

This year, I have learned a great deal about the English literature.  Everything from the meaning of onomatopoeia to how book reports are written, to studying and picking apart the three main types of literature: Prose, Drama, and Poetry.  Prose is what novels, novellas, and short stories are written in.  Drama is theatrical literature, basically the script of a play.  Poetry is literature with rhyming syllables and lines, making a sing-song kind of writing.  Today, I am going to summarize the main points and most important things that I learned.  (as a side note, onomatopoeia means “the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g., cuckoo, oink, sizzle )”

 

Prose:

As I said above, prose is what novels, novellas, and short stories are written in. It is the closest form of writing to our every-day language.  Though there are many prosaic writings in archaic language, at the time that it was written, the language was the new and popular speech of the day.  Essentially, prose is a written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without any poetical rhyme in it.   Here is an example sentence of old English prose from The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : Eleventh Century

“This year the king went into Cumberland, and nearly laid waste the whole of it with his army, whilst his navy sailed about Chester with the design of co-operating with his land- forces; but, finding it impracticable, they ravaged Anglesey.”

Here is an example sentence of today’s prose from Mark Twain’s “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”

“Tom did play hookey, and he had a very good time. He got back home barely in season to help Jim, the small colored boy, saw next day’s wood and split the kindlings before supper — at least he was there in time to tell his adventures to Jim while Jim did three fourths of the work.”

As you can see, both writings are from different time periods.  The language is different, but the main style is the same.

 

Fiction

  • Novels

Most fictional books are novels.  They are written in prose, so they are very easy to read and comprehend.  Novels generally have more than ten chapters and consist of many plot points.  It usually takes a chapter or two for a conflict to arise, then another few chapters for the action to rise, another one or two for the climax, and then a few more for the falling action and resolve.  Some famous novels are Huck Finn, by Mark Twain, To Kill a Mocking Bird by Harper Lee, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, and The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgeson Burnett.

  • Short stories

Short stories are essentially a one chapter book.  The action rises, falls, and resolves within a few pages rather than a few chapters. There are a lot fewer plot points, so it doesn’t take as long to resolve.  Personally, I like novels better.  I like a good long story that lasts more than 10-15 minutes to read.  Some of the most well-known short stories are Gift of the Magi, by O. Henry, Rip Van Winkle, by Washington Irving, and The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, by Mark Twain.

  • Novellas

Novellas are the middle ground between the longer novel and the short story.  They are written in prose also and have more of a plot than short stories, but less than novels.  Some well known novellas are “A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, The Old man and the Sea, by Ernest Hemingway, and War of the Worlds, by H.G. Wells.”

 

Drama:

Drama is very interesting.  Though it isn’t as prevalent now, drama used to be cutting edge entertainment.  Playwrights would write plays, and then their play troupe would either travel around and preform the plays, or they would establish themselves in a “playhouse” where people would come and pay to watch them.  There were three main types of drama: Comedies, Tragedies, and Histories.  Back in Shakespeare’s time, it was considered “improper” for ladies to act, so all of the drama troupes were men and boys only.  The young men who didn’t have beards yet would dress as women and play the female parts.

  • Comedies:

Comedy plays were fashioned to make people laugh. Whether it was making fun of leading men of the day, or poking fun at other characters, they succeeded.  Oftentimes the main characters would be silly, stupid, or half-way off their rocker.  The playwrights wrote what people of the day thought was funny.

  • Tragedies:

Tragedies are sad plays where the main character(s) normally die or are killed.  I don’t like tragedies because they are kind of depressing.  Shakespeare wrote a few famous tragedies such as Romeo and Juliette, Macbeth, and Julius Cesar.

  • Histories:

Historical plays are based on true stories and real events.  A majority of them were set in Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries.  Henry VIII and Richard III were two of Shakespeare’s famous Histories.

 

Poetry:

The literal definition of poetry is “Literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas. Distinctive style and rhythm”.  Ballads are poetic songs that tell a story.  They are often sad and long.  There are a lot of old ballads that have been passed down from generation to generation.  Limericks are funny and entertaining short poems. Generally, the first, second, and fifth lines rhyme with each other and the third and fourth lines rhyme with each other.  An Epic is a long poem such as Homer’s Odyssey that tells about a hero and the heroic deeds that he/she has done.  By no means is that all the types of poetical literature; there are many other veins of poetry that I haven’t gotten into.

 

 

Teacher/Class Material

I learned a lot through this class.  It was part of the Ron Paul Curriculum (RPC) 7th grade course.  The teacher (Bradley Fish Jr.) teaches English really well, but the content is much more advanced than 7th grade usually is. It is nice, because I already know more about writing than I would have otherwise, but at the same time, it definitely gets tough at times.  Mr. Fish is a great teacher.  He is easy to understand and he teaches in short, information-packed videos.

 

Conclusion:

Overall, this year has been truly educating and interesting.  I got to read a few very interesting books such as Lion of the North by G. A. Henty, Sherlock Holmes stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, and Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson.  I learned how to write book reports, semester reports, term reports, and essays.  I learned over 150 new vocabulary words, and improved abundantly at writing in general.  This will be my last assignment for English this year and I will be starting English 8 in the fall.

 

-Odessa

Woodrow Wilson and WWI

Image result for woodrow wilson

Today I am going to be writing about the 28th President of the U.S.; T. Woodrow Wilson, and the war that the massive war that the world was in during that time. It was known as “The Great War” or “The War to End all Wars”. We know it today as WWI. It was a conflict that lasted 4 years and involved 32 countries across the globe. Many new innovations and inventions were made and put to quick use, including the fighter plane and the armored tank. Though these innovations and inventions were truly amazing and useful, they caused many many more people to be killed.

 

Thomas Woodrow Wilson:
Thomas W. Wilson was born on December 28th, 1856. He grew up in Virginia, where his father Joseph was a preacher. During the Civil War, Wilson’s father served as chaplain for the Confederate army for a while and his family helped take care of wounded soldiers.

 

Wilson graduated from Princeton and then went on to study for a year at University of Virginia School of Law. He decided to finish his law studies at home, however, where he did just that. Then he set up his own law practice. It only lasted a year though, because Wilson found the little tasks of a lawyer somewhat monotonous. From that point, he went on to study Political Science and History. Wilson entered John Hopkins University and graduated three years later with a Ph.d.
In 1885, Woodrow married a girl named Ellen Axson and the couple had three children.

After serving as a teacher, writing some political science publications, and becoming President of Princeton, Wilson started getting into politics. He was a Democrat.

Woodrow Wilson was elected as the Governor of New Jersey in 1911 and served until 1913. Wilson ran in the 1912 election for President of the United States and he won with the governor of Indiana, Thomas R. Marshall as his vice president.

While in office, Wilson promoted segregation, lowered tariffs, and pushed for the Federal Trade Commission Act. Wilson ran for re-election in 1916 with the campaign slogan of “He kept us out of the War”. By this time, WWI had started and Wilson had managed to keep the U.S. out of it. He was re-elected, but as it turns out…

 

The United States Enters the War

Image result for US declaration of war WWIStaying out of the war wouldn’t last, however, because Prussia (now called Germany) declared that they were going to be starting unrestricted submarine warfare. That meant that they would basically torpedo any ship that they wanted to without any warning (it didn’t matter if it had innocent civilians on it or not). Another thing that pushed America into the war was that a telegraph had been intercepted from the Germans to the Mexicans. They were trying to convince Mexico to join the war and attack the U.S. since they were already bordering it. The upside for Mexico would be that they would get all of the lands back that they had lost to the U.S. in the Spanish-American war. When President Wilson read the telegram, he decided that the best thing to do was to join the war on the side of the Allied Forces. Congress agreed, so the U.S. was now a figure in the first world-wide war. It angered a lot of Americans that the U.S. joined, because “He kept us out of the war” right? Well, maybe not.

Thousands of our men and boys were sent overseas to fight in the war against Germany and Austro-Hungary. They were down in the trenches and driving tanks across enemy territory; flying scouting planes and marching along dusty roads.

 

New Technology

Speaking of scouting planes and tanks, let’s talk about new war machinery. Innovations were made on guns, transportation vehicles, and strategies.

Tanks:
Tanks were first invented by the British in 1915. They were metal-plated vehicles with tracks so that they could drive across trenches and rough terrain instead of having to go around it. They had machine guns mounted on them, so they could fire on the enemy from inside a metal shell.

 

Poison Gas:

Another thing that was becoming a more popular weapon was poison gasses. They would be sprayed over the enemy. The problem was, gas masks could be made. This was Image result for wwicountered by stronger gas. Then stronger masks, then stronger gas. It was an ongoing game; try to make gas and masks stronger than the enemy’s. You had to make it strong enough to penetrate and keep from penetrating. Though this did kill men, it wasn’t as deadly as other tactics. It gave a lot of men life-long injuries and problems though.

Fighter Planes:

Related imageIt was during the first world war that fighter planes were put in to use. Airplanes had become really successful only 12 years before and at the time they were only used in war for scouting. A Frenchman by the name of Roland Garros changed all of that when he had the idea of mounting a machine gun on a plane. But, there was a problem. It had to fire through the propeller, but the machine gun wasn’t timed with it, so metal plates were attached to the Image result for WWI fighter planespropeller to deflect the rounds that hit it. This worked, but it definitely wasn’t the most efficient design. Unfortunately, Garros went down behind enemy lines and his plane was confiscated. It was inspected and the machine gun was spotted. The Germans thought “What a great idea!” and so they found a man that could work on airplanes and told him “You have 48 hours to present us a working replica of this”. He not only did what they told him to, but he synchronized the propeller and machine gun so it fired between the blades of the prop. He took the plane on a test-fly and proved that it worked. This new technology was immediately implemented.

Image result for the Red BaronAny pilot that downed more than five planes earned the nickname of “Ace”, but there was one pilot that shot down more than anyone. He was a German soldier by the name of Manfred von Richthofen, but he was known best by the name of “The Red Baron”. He had the amazing record of 80 kills. His plane was red, that’s why he was known as the red baron.

 

Battles:

Since I don’t have time to go into the details of all of the battles in WWI, I’ll just give you an overview of a couple of the most important battles.

The battle of Liege was the first battle of the war. It was in Belgium. That shocked a lot of Image result for WWI battlenations and caused Great Britain to join the war. The reason it shocked people was because Belgium was a neutral country. Germany invaded Belgium so that they could get a clearer path to France, thus the Battle of Liege. Great Britain figured that if Germany disregarded the neutral state of Belgium, they would probably disregard the neutral state of Britain also, so Great Britain joined France and the Allies against Germany and Austro-Hungary. The battle of Liege was a siege and concluded with Germany capturing Liege.

The next battle that we are going to talk about is the battle of Tannenberg. It was on the eastern front and was fought by the Germans and the Russian 2nd army. The Germans basically annihilated the Russian 2nd army. They captured 92 thousand men and killed or wounded 78,000. Only roughly 10,000 were able to escape the battlefield. Only two weeks later, the Germans decimated the Russian 1st army also. This essentially put Russia on the bench for the rest of the war.

The Battle of Marne was fought on the western front by allies France and Britain against Germany. It was the last stand to keep the Germans out of Paris. The Germans were planning to cut off the French army and encircle it, then attack Paris. Thankfully, the allies were victorious and able to keep the Germans away from Paris.

The bloodiest battle of the war was at Verdun. Verdun was a French fort on the border and was a crucial point for the Allies to keep. It was actually a 9-month long siege instead of just one battle. The Allied forces were eventually the victors.

During the Siege of Verdun, the United States joined the war. Ever since the war had begun, the U.S. had been supplying the Allied forces with munition and supplies. That was very unusual at the time, because if you are a “neutral” nation, then you shouldn’t technically be supplying an army with war supplies. The U.S. had massive artillery factories and they could produce basically whatever the Allies needed. Once they officially declared war on Germany, they not only supplied ammunition, guns, trucks, iron, and steel to the allies, but they now supplied manpower also.

The last battle in the war was the battle of Amiens. The allies were on the offensive this time, and they managed to absolutely crush Germany forces and put them on the run. This battle led to the end of the war and the treaty of Versailles.

 

The End

Image result for end of WWI USThankfully the war was over and peace was made.  Europe could start the process of reconstruction and the many holes in families could be honored.  It seems the world bounced back extremely fast, because it was ready for WWII in just 21 years.

 

 

Bibliography:

 

Wikipedia. “Woodrow Wilson.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Apr. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson.

“The Rise of the Fighter Plane.” Eyewitness History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/fokker.htm. Fighter Planes, History

 

 

TV and Movies

When you think of the word entertainment, what comes to mind? Most likely your favorite TV show or your new favorite movie. Today I am going to tell you about the evolution of television, and my thoughts about it.  It all started with photographs, then moving pictures were developed, then silent films, and finally; movies and animation.

 

First Moving Pictures:

The first ever moving picture was made by Eadweard Muybridge in 1880.  He was the first person to figure out how to make pictures move like real life.  He set up a whole row of cameras with trip wires, so that when the wires were tripped, the camera would take a picture.  He had a horse and rider run in front of the cameras, capturing a whole bunch of pictures of a running horse.  Then he played the film in one of his inventions; the zoöpraxiscope, giving the illusion of an actual moving horse (see the moving picture above). I found this interesting video on how the Zoopraxiscope works.

 

Developments and Innovations:

Over the next couple of years, innovators took the moving picture idea and ran with it.  George Eastman invented a type of film to replace the glass plates that had limited photographers so much, and eventually, innovators figured out how to make a camera that recorded motion onto a roll of film. This produced what they called silent films. Short movies without sound (most were less than 1/2 and hour long).  By 1928, sound was introduced, and now, since it was more enjoyable to watch, film makers started making full length movies. The well loved Mickey Mouse debuted in 1928 with it’s first episode called Steamboat Williehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NQyzcDnMdE

In 1931 Merrie Melodies was created making the characters of Bugs Bunny, Yosemite Sam, Porky pig, Donald Duck, and many more nationwide favorites. The 1930’s and 40’s saw much improvement in the quality of movies.  In the mid 1930’s color was added, and over the next couple of decades, television would become the most popular form of entertainment out there.  In the 1960’s, people had figured out how to do computer animation in movies.  For a long time, it was only used for short periods in movies (such as a car flying down a hill at break-neck speed), but by the 1970-80’s when the animation was becoming better,  filmmakers were using it more and more in movies such as Star Wars and Star Trek.  In 1997, the first computer generated 3D movie (to be seen with 3D glasses) was debuted.

 

My Thoughts:

Today, we can watch people live on our TVs from across the globe, see videos from outer space, and watch how to do practically anything on YouTube.  While I enjoy watching a good movie, I also know that people waste a whole lot of time watching things instead of doing things.  Kids nowadays go watch their favorite show instead of going outside and playing a game with the neighbor kids a lot of the times. Another bad thing about movies is all the crap that they have in them now.  It’s hard to find a wholesome family movie that upholds good morals and ideals instead of making heroes out of the bad guys, promoting rebellion, and making immorality look good and “cool”.  I don’t want to make it sound like I’m all against movies and TV, and don’t get me wrong; there are thousands of amazing movies out there, it’s just that you have to use a lot of discernment and wisdom sifting through all the trash to find a movie that you would actually want yourself or your kids to watch.

 

Anyways, in conclusion to today’s essay, movies and TV are truly a great invention, and can be used to bring a good message to the world.   Here is a great movie if y’all need one to watch: Fireproof

Carnegie and Ford

My assignment today was to write an essay about the Industrial age in America. I already wrote an essay on the industrial revolution (here) which is the same thing, so I’m going to tell you a little bit about two of the leading businessmen of the day, as well as how they impacted the United States.

Andrew Carnegie

Carnegie (age 16) with his little brother

Andrew Carnegie was born in Scotland to a poor/middle-class family.  They immigrated https://www.carnegiecouncil.org/people/andrew-carnegie/_res/id=Picture/thumbnail=1/width=170/quality=100to America when he was a young teenager, where he soon got a job in a factory as a bobbin boy.  Carnegie was able to get out of the factories, and with the help and influence of his uncle, he got a job as a telegraph messenger. He was so fast at transmitting messages that a railroad businessman took notice of him and hired him as his secretary.  Even though Carnegie was his employee, the man took great interest in him and acted almost like a mentor to him.  Under this businessman’s recommendation, Carnegie saved his money and started investing it in stocks.  The young man had a good eye for deals, and he eventually became pretty well-to-do.  Carnegie then started the Keystone Bridge Co.  During the War (U.S. civil war) the need for iron and steel was growing by the day, so Carnegie and some other men started a steel rolling mill.  He went on to start his own steel company called Carnegie Steel Co. which made him one of the very richest men in America in those days.  Andrew Carnegie is also known for his great philanthropic additions to society.  A few of the notable things that he financed are: Carnegie Hall, Carnegie Endowment for National Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, and many more.

 

 

Henry Ford

Image result for Henry fordHenry Ford; we’ve all heard the name. The man that brought down the price of cars so much that they were now available for the common people, not just the wealthy. He was the inventor of the Model T, and the man who had the first assembly line system in his factories.

Henry Ford was good at tinkering with things and making them work. At the age of 15, he completely took apart a pocket watch and put it back together again, earning himself the reputation of expert watch repairman.  Ford’s first real job was as an apprentice machinist for a company called James F. Flower & Bros.  He got another job as a machinist at the Detroit Dry Dock Company before returning home to the family farm.  He learned how to repair and work on the Westinghouse steam engines, and got hired by Westinghouse to be the repairman.  Ford became an engineer in the Edison Lighting Co, where he worked himself up to the position of chief engineer.

Ford and his wife in the Quadricycle

About this time Ford started experimenting with gas engines and moving things with them. He called his first vehicle a Quadricycle.  Eventually Ford left Edison’s company and started the Detroit Automobile Company.  It turned out to be a failure.

Image result for Model t
Model T

After another rocky start, the Ford Motor Co. came to life, introducing the Model T in October of 1908.

 

Ford had found a way to make cars cheap enough, sturdy enough, and wanted by the common people enough, to have a huge business.  He was the first man to implement the assembly line system into his factories.  The parts of the cars would come slowly down a moving belt, and each person had a specific little thing that they did to each part passing by them.  It was very monotonous work, but Ford made it worth his employees while, often paying them twice as much as other companies payed there employees.  During WWI,  Henry Ford started an airplane business, but it shut down due to the great depression.  Henry Ford died in April of 1947, leaving behind a massive car company, and a revolutionized automobile industry.

 

 

Clara Barton

 

Related image

Today I am going to be writing about the famous U.S. Civil War nurse and founder of the American Red Cross; Clara Barton

Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born on Christmas Day of 1821. She was the baby of the family and she loved her four older siblings dearly. Ever since she was a young girl, Clara had an aptitude for nursing and doctoring. She nursed her brother David back to health after he fell from the rafters of a barn while he was building it. Nothing that anyone else did seemed to help, yet Clara, at age 10 stayed by him and nursed him after all of the doctors had given up. Eventually, David got better and was able to work again.

At the age of 17, she got her teacher’s certificate and took on a school. Her pupils loved her, and she loved what she was doing. Clara taught for 12 years. Eventually, she moved to Washington DC and started work in the US patent office. She was one of the very first women to hold a government job.

When the Civil War broke out, Clara started going to the train stations to help with the wounded soldiers that were being brought in the trains. She knew quite a few of them from among her students, and there were others that she had grown up with. Clara recognized the great need for supplies and nurses on the battlefield, so she started gathering supplies. She put ads in newspapers asking for supplies donations, got the ladies societies to give bandages, clothes, etc, and used her own home as a storehouse for all of it. After a lot of pushback, she was finally allowed to go out on the battlefield to put her nursing skills to use. To her, it didn’t matter what color the uniform was that the man she was nursing was wearing, or what side he belonged to. Even though she was on the Union side, she would help confederate and union soldiers alike. Sometimes when the soldiers were in delirium, they would think that this woman bending over and placing a cool rag on their forehead was their mother. They came to call her the “Angel of the Battlefield”, “American Nightingale”, and other endearing terms as those. This quote from Clara Barton shows something of her mentality and character.

I don’t know how long it has been since my ear has been free from the roll of a drum. It is the music I sleep by, and I love it…. I shall remain here while anyone remains, and do whatever comes to my hand. I may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while our soldiers can stand and fight, I can stand and feed and nurse them.

-Clara Barton

After the war, Clara went on a trip to Europe. While there, she helped in the Red Cross organization and met a few of the high up people in the program. Clara Barton loved what she saw, and eventually, after a lot of hard work, she convinced US President Chester Allan Arthur to fund a new branch of the organization in America. She became the first president of the American Red Cross.

Throughout the rest of her life, Clara Barton led her nurses and doctors to the scenes of many floods, battles, hurricanes, etc to help anyone who needed help. Barton died on April 12, 1912, leaving behind one of the most well-known and respected legacies of all time.